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For undergraduate-level introductory courses in Asian Philosophy and Asian Religion. This text carefully introduces and analyzes the views and the arguments. Presents a collection of English translations of the basic text that have shaped the major Asian philosophical traditions. PDF File: Asian Philosophies by Koller, John M. [Pearson, ] 6th Edition [ Paperback] Edition [Paperback] (Paperback) by Koller for online ebook. Asian .
Two other concepts in Confucianism are Tao, the way of life and Te, potency and self-sacrificial generosity with humility, with the moral power of attraction and transformation, associated with these qualities. The humanistic attribute required to achieve the above is through Ren, which means love, kindness and goodness, qualities of the perfect individual. This is the essence of what makes humans different from other members of the animal kingdom.
Through Li, the individual expresses his respect and reverence for others . Another important aspect of Confucian thought mentioned above is Yi or righteousness.
This is where self interest is subservient to organizational interest. Yi is practiced through cultivating ritual and etiquette and eventually becomes second nature.
Zhi or wisdom is the ability to apply the above virtues into life situations which implies an understanding of the Confucian worldview above. Zhi is therefore much more than knowledge.
Finally one must possess Xin or trustworthiness to safeguard the mission of the organization. Romar suggested that Confucian ethics are very similar to the ideas developed by Peter Drucker . Confucius was not influential in government during his time, serving only in minor positions, and wondering around China giving advice to those few that listened.
However, he attracted a number of followers, who later held office in government, advised by Confucius on matters of ethics and piety.
Confucius spent most of his last years working on his classics. After his death, Confucianism had to contend with other philosophies of Taoism and Buddhism during the 3rd to 7th Centuries, creating a blend of philosophies creating Neo-Confucianism, dominating philosophical thought in China during the Tsang Dynasty AD , the Sung Dynasty AD and later during the Ming Dynasty AD. Confucian institutions in China slowly disintegrated after the overthrow of the Last Emperor in , although it survived in practice in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macao and parts of South-East Asia after that time.
Confucianism has been examined and debated about its significance to Asian Economic development by Western scholars, over the last few decades. Confucianism is often misunderstood, as to its real interpretations.
Most have believed that Confucianism is completely worldly and humanistic, lacking any divinity. Some scholars have criticized Confucian works as being nothing more than a reaffirmation of earlier thoughts, with no originality  , although Confucius himself stated the need to look back to learn history as examples of models and acts of piety.
Many misunderstand the concept of holism, not necessarily meaning holism of society, but holism of the worldview from a family perspective . However Tu suggested that individualism is a Western mode of capitalism and East Asian had developed another model based on relationships to develop change through consensus and networks, with a sense of personal discipline .
The two medical traditions occupy an increasingly larger portion in the global market, presumably due to the rising interest not only among the consumers but also among medical practitioners [ 1 ].
The historical, cultural and social foundations of the Asian states were cultivated on top of the three main philosophical traditions, namely, the Vedic philosophy giving rise to Ayurveda , Taoism giving rise to TCM and Confucianism. Although it originated from TCM, traditional Korean medicine TKM eventually evolved into an independent medical tradition with distinctive qualities of its own. SCM has won increasingly more popularity in Korea and overseas as more people began to recognize the effectiveness of SCM therapy and the advantages of its constitutionally individualized approach.
Unlike conventional TM, the SCM is rooted in the neo-Confucianism philosophy and holds a constitution-based perspective [ 4 ]. Ayurveda, TCM and SCM share many aspects in common and yet have individual qualities that make each medical tradition unique and special.
This article portrays the basic picture of the three medical traditions of Ayurveda, TCM and SCM and sheds light on their similar and distinctive features.
Medical interventions therefore necessarily take into account the multifaceted and complex relationship between the spirit, mind and body, and the aim of therapy is not the elimination of the isolated disease or symptom but the treatment of the body as a whole [ 5 ].
TM diagnosis relies on subjective examination observing, listening, inquiring and palpating of the patient by the medical professional, and TM therapy includes a wide spectrum of therapeutic modalities such as herbal medication, acupunctural therapy and manual therapy.
TM herbal remedies are generally a mixture of several medicinal herbs, and the synergistic effect of the ingredients produces the intended therapeutic results. The complex therapeutic effect rectifies the external disturbance to the body and restores the internal imbalance in the body [ 4 , 6 ].
This idea also goes along with the idea of freedom of speech and expression, not in saying whatever you want, but in giving the freedom to criticize government when it is justly deserved, without fear of punishment from said government However, this does not mean that one must completely obedient at all times, rather, it is permissible to respectfully question authority when appropriate and necessary Translated by Roger T. Ames, Henry Rosemont.
The Chinese Classics, 2 ed. Bill of rights, for example. In many Western countries that now have a Bill of Rights indicating this freedom of speech, they were ruled by a monarchy and speaking against the king was punishable by death. This resulted in great unrest leading to violent revolution. In the aftermath of the conflict, they wanted to prevent this, and similar forms of oppression, from happening in the future; hence the creation of their Bills of Rights, and the inclusion of the right to freedom of speech.
Sources of Chinese Tradition, 2 ed. New York: Columbia University Press, It also is important in that it ensures that children love and care for their parents This emphasis on caring for their parents is not just emotional, it is important to not just respect them, but to have a sense of duty and obligation to them.
There is no social net on the government level, but in the family hierarchy outlined through the five relationships, children must be the social net for their elders. So part of filial piety and caring for ones parents refers to literally taking care of them in providing for them He started with the rulers, they as leaders need to set an example to the rest of society.
In book 13 of the Analects, Confucius lays out the chief duties and responsibilities of rulers. New York: nd Columbia University Press, As expressed earlier, Article 25 of the UDHR expresses that 1 Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
According to the Confucius, if filial piety is practiced, these standards of living and necessary care and assistance to special populations such as mothers and the elderly will be provided, not through government social programs, such as the welfare system that provides a social net in modern Western countries, but rather through the family.
Acevedo 8 Confucius preferred to teach virtue to people to prevent wrong behavior, rather than using laws to do so.
Guide them by virtue, keep them in line with rites, and they will besides having a sense of shame, reform themselves. Norton, New York Chan, Joseph. This lack of legal protection is one thing that greatly differs between Confucianism and Western Human Rights.
As a whole, the West is much more focused on legislation, and thus would argue that this method does not really do anything to prevent harm from being done or get people to do the right thing. This attitude indicates the vast difference between rights based and virtue based ethical discussions.
However, despite this criticism, the possibly of distributing justice through punishment is given for wrong action. On the other hand, Confucius seeks to improve society and prevent wrong action through improving the individual through leading a good example and work towards self-improvement, which in many ways is a more sustainable approach and one more aimed at improving society as a whole.
This was addressed in a more western way through the later Confucian development of Legalism. Acevedo 9 The Confucian concept of Ren also expressed as Jen 38 is possibly one of the most vital and fundamental ideas of the philosophy.
This simple yet quintessential concept is I know is one often taught in schools at an early age. It makes it very simple in that, if you would not want others to do it to you, why would it therefore be acceptable for you to do it to them?
It is the stepping stone to teaching a sense of benevolence, altruism, and humaneness towards others Chinese Philosophy: A Characterization. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
This idea of brotherhood sounds very similar to the Confucian concept of Ren, which means benevolence and love of all men. Chinese philosophy a characterization, pp. The emperor, rather than ruling through fear and terror, must earn the respect given to him by his subjects by abstaining from ill-treatment of them Though the society is hierarchical, it is unacceptable for those of authority to treat the subordinate is a cruel or inhuman manner If a ruler were to treat their subjects poorly, they would lose their "Mandate of Heaven" This concept originated in the beginning of the Zhou dynasty, but had been long forgotten after the country fell into war and corruption.
Princeton University Press. Princeton, NJ It is true that there was no gender equality in the Analects. Hierarchy was necessary to provide order. However, they were not supposed to be ill-treated either, but rather treated with benevolence, and they played an important role in the household and the society as a whole. This benevolence is expressed through ren. This implies that the mandate of heaven was not permanent.